What is Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) 

Prison Professors Masterclass Digital Economy: Lesson 12: Binance BNB

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) is essential for protecting your online accounts. Use SMS codes, authenticator apps, or hardware tokens for added security. Stay safe! #2FA #CyberSecurity #PrisonProfessors

Lesson 27: What is Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

Lesson Intro:

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Each lesson includes critical thinking questions and a glossary. We encourage participants to use these lessons, and to memorialize their learning path by building a profile on Prison Professors Talent. More information on how to build a personal profile at the end of this workbook.

27. What Is Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)?


  • Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) is a security mechanism that requires users to provide two distinct forms of verification before gaining access to an account or system.
  • Typically, these factors involve something the user knows (a password) and something the user has (a smartphone-generated one-time code), adding an additional layer of protection against unauthorized access.
  • Types of 2FA include SMS-based codes, authenticator apps, hardware tokens (YubiKey), biometrics (like fingerprint or facial recognition), and email-based codes.
  • 2FA is particularly crucial for the safeguarding of your financial and investment accounts, including those associated with cryptocurrency.


The significance of robust online security can’t be overstated today when our lives are increasingly intertwined with the online realm. We constantly share our sensitive data, from addresses, phone number, ID data, to credit card information across numerous online platforms.

Yet, our primary line of defense is generally a username and password, which has proven itself vulnerable to hacking attempts and data breaches time and again. This is where Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) emerges as a formidable safeguard against these dangers.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) is a pivotal security measure that goes beyond the traditional password model and introduces an additional layer of security: a second barrier that fortifies the walls safeguarding your online presence. 

At its core, 2FA is the shield that stands between our online presence and the potential malevolent forces seeking to exploit it. 

What Is 2FA Authentication?

2FA is a multi-layered security mechanism designed to verify the identity of a user before granting access to a system. Unlike the traditional username and password combination, 2FA adds an additional layer of protection by requiring users to provide two distinct forms of identification:

  1. Something you know
    • This is typically your password, a secret that only you should know. It serves as the first line of defense, a gatekeeper to your digital identity.
  2. Something you have
    • The second factor introduces an external element that only the legitimate user possesses. This could be a physical device (like a smartphone or hardware token such as YubiKey, RSA SecurID tokens, and Titan Security Key), a one-time code generated by an authenticator app, or even biometric data (such as fingerprint or face recognition).

The magic of 2FA lies in the combination of these two factors, creating a robust defense against unauthorized access. Even if a malicious actor manages to obtain your password, they would still need the second factor to gain entry. 

This two-pronged approach significantly raises the bar for potential attackers, making it considerably more challenging to breach your security.

Why Do You Need 2FA Authentication?

Passwords have been a long-standing and ubiquitous form of authentication, but they have notable limitations. They can be vulnerable to a range of attacks, including brute force attacks, where an attacker systematically tries various password combinations until they gain access. 

Additionally, users often use weak or easily guessable passwords, further compromising their security. The rise of data breaches and the sharing of compromised passwords across multiple online services have also rendered passwords less secure. 

A recent case in point involves the hack of Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin’s X account (formerly Twitter), which posted a malicious phishing link, resulting in the theft of nearly $700,000 from people’s crypto wallets.

Although the specifics of the hack remain undisclosed, it underscores the significance of access security. While not immune to attacks, 2FA significantly increases the difficulty for unauthorized individuals attempting to access your accounts.

Where Can You Use 2FA Authentication?

The most common 2FA applications include:

  1. Email accounts
    • Leading email providers like Gmail, Outlook, and Yahoo offer 2FA options to protect your inbox from unauthorized access.
  2. Social media
    • Platforms like Facebook, X (formerly Twitter), and Instagram encourage users to enable 2FA to secure their profiles.
  3. Financial services
    • Banks and financial institutions often implement 2FA for online banking, ensuring the safety of your financial transactions.
  4. E-commerce
    • Online shopping websites like Amazon and eBay provide 2FA options to safeguard your payment information.
  5. Workplace and business
    • Many companies mandate the use of 2FA to protect sensitive corporate data and accounts.
      2FA authentication has increasingly become a ubiquitous and indispensable feature, enhancing security across a wide range of online interactions.

Different Types of 2FAs and Their Pros and Cons

There are various types of Two-Factor Authentication (2FA), each with their advantages and potential drawbacks. 

  1. SMS-based 2FA
    • SMS-based 2FA involves receiving a one-time code via text message on your registered mobile phone after entering your password.
      The advantages of this method is that it’s highly accessible, as almost everyone has a mobile phone capable of receiving text messages. It’s also easy as it doesn’t require additional hardware or apps.
      But the limitations are that it’s vulnerable to SIM swapping attacks, where someone can hijack your phone number and intercept your SMS messages. This type of 2FA is also reliant on cellular networks, as the SMS delivery may be delayed or fail in areas with poor network coverage.
  2. Authenticator apps 2FA
    • Authenticator apps such as Google Authenticator and Authy generate time-based One-Time Passwords (OTPs) without the need for an internet connection.
      The benefits include offline access, as these work even without internet connection, and multi-account support, which means that a single app can generate OTPs for multiple accounts.
      The drawbacks include the requirement of setting up, which could be slightly more complex than SMS-based 2FA. It’s also device dependent, because you need the app on your smartphone or another device.
  3. Hardware tokens 2FA
    • Hardware tokens are physical devices that generate OTPs. Some popular ones include YubiKey, RSA SecurID tokens, and Titan Security Key.
      These hardware tokens are typically compact and portable, resembling keychain fobs or USB-like devices. Users must carry them to use them for authentication.
      The advantages are that these are highly secure, because they are offline and immune to online attacks. These tokens often have a long battery life of several years.
      The limitations are that users need to buy them, which incurs an initial cost. Additionally, these devices could be lost or damaged, which require users to buy a replacement.
  4. Biometrics 2FA
    • Biometric 2FA uses unique physical characteristics such as fingerprints and facial recognition to verify identity.
      Its pros include high accuracy and being user-friendly, which is convenient for users who prefer not to remember codes.
      The potential drawbacks include privacy concerns, as biometrics data must be securely stored to prevent misuse. Biometric systems can also occasionally produce errors.
  5. Email-Based 2FA
    • Email-based 2FA sends a one-time code to your registered email address. This method is familiar to most users and requires no additional apps or devices. But it’s susceptible to email compromises that could lead to insecure 2FA. Email delivery would also sometimes be delayed.

How to Choose the Right Type of 2FA?

The choice of 2FA method should consider factors such as the level of security required, user convenience, and the specific use case.

For high-security situations like financial accounts or crypto exchange accounts, hardware tokens or authenticator apps may be preferred. 

In cases where accessibility is crucial, SMS-based 2FA or email-based 2FA could be more suitable. Biometrics are excellent for devices with built-in sensors, but privacy and data protection must be priorities.

Step-by-Step Guide for Setting Up 2FA

Let’s walk you through the essential steps to set up Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) on various platforms. The steps may differ depending on the platform, but they generally follow the same logic. 

  1. Choose your 2FA method
    • Depending on the platform and your preference, select the 2FA method that suits you best, whether it’s SMS-based, authenticator app, hardware token, or others. If you decide to use an authenticator app or a hardware token, you would need to purchase and install them first.
  2. Enable 2FA in your account settings
    • Log in to the platform or service where you want to enable 2FA, and navigate to your account settings or security settings. Find Two-Factor Authentication option and enable it.
  3. Choose a backup method
    • Many platforms offer backup methods in case you lose access to your primary 2FA method. You can opt for a backup method such as backup codes or secondary authenticator apps when available.
  4. Follow setup instructions to verify your setup
    • Follow the setup instructions for your chosen 2FA method. This usually involves scanning a QR code with an authenticator app, linking your phone number for SMS-based 2FA, or registering a hardware token. Complete the setup process by entering the verification code provided by your chosen 2FA method.
  5. Secure backup codes
    • If you receive backup codes, store them in a safe and accessible place, preferably offline. You can print or write them down and keep them in a locked drawer, or securely store them in a password manager. These codes can be used if you ever lose access to your primary 2FA method.

Once you’ve set up 2FA, it’s crucial to use it effectively while avoiding common pitfalls and ensuring your backup codes are secure.

Tips for Using 2FA Effectively

Setting up your 2FA is just the beginning of keeping your accounts secure. You need to follow best practices while using them. 

These include regularly updating your authenticator app, enabling 2FA on all eligible accounts to prevent security threats to your other online accounts, and continuing using strong and unique passwords. 

You also need to remain cautious against potential pitfalls or mistakes. This includes never sharing your OTPs with anyone, stay alert to phishing scams, and always verify the authenticity of requests you receive. 

If you ever lose a device used for 2FA, you must immediately revoke access and update your 2FA settings across all accounts. 

Closing Thoughts 

The biggest take away from this article is that 2FA isn’t an option, it’s a necessity. 

The ongoing prevalence of security breaches and the consequential losses we witness daily serve as a stark reminder to adopt Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) for your accounts. This becomes particularly crucial for the safeguarding of your financial and investment accounts, including those associated with cryptocurrency.

So, get to your computer, pick up your phone, or buy a hardware token and set up your 2FA right now. It’s an empowerment that gives you the control over your digital safety and protects your valued assets. 

If you already have 2FA set up, remember that keeping safe online is a dynamic process. New technologies and new attacks will continue to emerge. You must stay informed and vigilant to stay secure. 

Further Reading

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Critical Thinking Questions

  1. How does Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) enhance the security of online accounts compared to traditional password-based systems?
  2. What are the potential drawbacks of using SMS-based 2FA, and how can users mitigate these risks?
  3. In what ways can the implementation of 2FA protect financial and investment accounts, particularly those associated with cryptocurrency?
  4. Consider the various types of 2FA methods discussed (SMS-based, authenticator apps, hardware tokens, biometrics, email-based). Which method do you believe offers the best balance of security and convenience, and why?
  5. How can staying informed about new technologies and emerging security threats help individuals maintain the effectiveness of their 2FA and overall online security?

Advocacy Initiative:

We encourage participants to begin memorializing the ways they are using time in prison to prepare for success upon release. I encourage participants to create a personal profile by:

  1. Writing a simple biography
  2. Writing a daily journal to show all that you’re learning
  3. Writing book reports that memorialize the books you read
  4. Writing a release plan to show the ways you’re preparing for success upon release

These strategies helped me immensely once I got out. By using my time wisely inside, I was able to raise capital, build businesses, and succeed in ways that few people would think are possible for someone who served multiple decades in prison. Anyone can do the same—if they prepare first.

If you’d like to follow in the same footsteps, I encourage you to begin building your personal profile. Get started by sending an email message to our team at:

Prison Professors Talent
[email protected]
32565 Golden Lantern, B-1026
Dana Point, CA 92629

Our interns will accept your email invite. You may then send the interns a message such as:

Dear Interns,  

My name is xxx, and I am in prison. I would like to begin showing the strategies I am using to prepare for success upon release. Please send me a Release Plan Workbook, and any other books that will help me prepare for the job market. After receiving those workbooks, I will begin building my profile to show others how I am using my time inside to prepare for success outside.  

[Your Name]


  • Access (noun) – The means or opportunity to approach or enter a place or system.
  • Authenticator (noun) – A device or app that generates a one-time code for verifying identity.
  • Biometrics (noun) – Unique physical characteristics, such as fingerprints or facial recognition, used for verifying identity.
  • Compromise (verb) – To expose or make vulnerable to unauthorized access or harm.
  • Convenience (noun) – The state of being able to proceed with something with little effort or difficulty.
  • Cryptocurrency (noun) – A digital or virtual currency secured by cryptography, making it nearly impossible to counterfeit or double-spend.
  • Device (noun) – A piece of electronic equipment used for a specific purpose, such as a smartphone or hardware token.
  • Factor (noun) – A circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result, such as the two elements in 2FA.
  • Identification (noun) – The process of verifying the identity of a user.
  • Layer (noun) – A level of security or protection added to enhance safety.
  • Mechanism (noun) – A system or process by which something operates or is accomplished.
  • Multifactor (adjective) – Involving or using multiple methods for authentication.
  • Phishing (noun) – A fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information by disguising as a trustworthy entity.
  • Robust (adjective) – Strong and effective in all or most situations and conditions.
  • Safeguard (noun) – A measure taken to protect someone or something or to prevent something undesirable.
  • Security (noun) – Measures taken to protect a computer or system against unauthorized access or attack.
  • Token (noun) – A small physical device used to authenticate access, such as a YubiKey.
  • Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) (noun) – A security mechanism that requires two distinct forms of verification before gaining access.
  • Verification (noun) – The process of establishing the truth, accuracy, or validity of something.
  • Vulnerable (adjective) – Susceptible to physical or emotional attack or harm, particularly in the context of online security.

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